His r&d literatures review were highly stylistic. His best known work is Sermo Lupi ad Anglos in which he r&d literatures review the sins of the English for the Viking invasions. He wrote a number of clerical legal texts Institutes of Polity and Canons of Edgar. It has survived in six fragments. It is believed to date from the 9th century by an anonymous Mercian author. There are four additional lives in the earliest manuscript of the Lives of Saints, the Julius manuscript: He also produced a r&d literature review entitled Computus, which outlined the practical application of arithmetic to the calculation of calendar days and movable feastsas well as tide tables.
He also wrote a grammar and glossary in Old English called Latinlater used by students interested in learning Old French because it had been glossed in Old French.
Also contained in Nowell is Alexander’s Letter to Aristotle. Because this is the same manuscript that dissertation help online While male sexual response is r&d literature review, several key brain regions are critical for achieving and maintaining erections [ 61 ].
Hypothalamic nuclei play an important role in regulating sexual behavior and erections by acting as an integration center for brain and peripheral input [ 62 ]. The hypothalamic nuclei that facilitate erections receive pro-erectile input from the mesolimbic dopamine pathway, which comprises the ventral tegmental area VTA and the nucleus accumbens NAc [ 62 ].
Erections are dependent upon activation of dopaminergic neurons in VTA and dopamine receptors in the NAc [ 6566 ]. Excitatory r&d literature review inputs from other limbic structures amygdala, hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex facilitate dopaminergic r&d literature review in the VTA and NAc [ 62 ]. Reward responsive dopamine neurons also project into the dorsal striatum, a region activated during sexual arousal and penile tumescence [ 67 ].
Dopamine agonists, such as apomorphine, have been shown to induce erection in men with both normal and impaired erectile function [ 68 ]. Thus, dopamine signaling in the reward system and hypothalamus plays a central role in sexual arousal, sexual motivation and penile r&d literatures review [ 656669 ].
We propose that chronic Internet pornography use resulted in erectile dysfunction and delayed ejaculation in our servicemen reported above. We hypothesize an etiology arising in part from Internet pornography-induced alterations in the circuits governing sexual desire and penile erections. These two brain changes are consistent with chronic overconsumption of both natural rewards and drugs of abuse, and are mediated by dopamine surges in the reward system [ 707172 ].
Internet Pornography as Supernormal Stimulus Arguably, the most important development in the field of problematic sexual behavior is the way in which the Internet is influencing and facilitating compulsive sexual behavior [ 73 ]. Sexually explicit material has been around for a long time, but 1 video pornography is significantly more sexually arousing than other forms of pornography [ 7677 ] or fantasy [ 78 ]; 2 novel sexual visuals have been shown to trigger greater arousal, faster ejaculation, and more semen and erection activity compared with familiar material, perhaps because attention to potential novel r&d literatures review and arousal served reproductive fitness [ 75798081828384 ]; and 3 the ability to self-select material with ease makes Internet pornography more order an essay online than pre-selected collections [ 79 ].
A pornography user can maintain or heighten sexual arousal by instantly clicking to a novel scene, new video or never encountered genre. Novelty registers as salient, enhances reward value, and has lasting effects on motivation, learning and memory [ 85 ].
Like sexual motivation and the rewarding properties of sexual interaction, novelty is compelling because it triggers bursts of fix my essay free in regions of the brain strongly associated with reward and goal-directed behavior [ 66 ]. While compulsive Internet pornography users show stronger preference for novel sexual images than healthy controls, their dACC dorsal anterior cingulate cortex also shows more rapid habituation to images than healthy controls [ 86 ], fueling the search for more novel sexual images.
Anxiety, which has been shown to increase sexual arousal [ 8994 ], may also accompany Internet pornography use. In short, Internet pornography offers all of these qualities, which register as salient, stimulate dopamine bursts, and enhance sexual arousal.
- Universal Access in the Information Society, 3 2 pp.
- On physical examination, his vital signs were all normal, and his genital exam was normal appearing without lesions or masses.
- In March of , the ERIC Digest service performed a content analysis to determine trends in the field of educational technology over the previous year, and stated that “distance education is evident at almost every educational level in almost every sector.
- Like sexual motivation and the rewarding properties of sexual interaction, novelty is compelling because it triggers bursts of dopamine in regions of the brain strongly associated with reward and goal-directed behavior [ 66 ].
- Animal studies linking mercury toxicity to neurodegenerative diseases [ , ] raise clinical concern, as do a series of associations between mercury and neurodegenerative diseases in humans [ — ].
- A review of marijuana-related articles in the medical literature revealed titles on antiemetic properties, 56 on glaucoma, 10 on multiple sclerosis, 23 on appetite, and 11 on palliative or terminal care.
- The influence of the poetry can be seen in modern poets T.
Internet Pornography Use as Self-Reinforcing Activity As the reward system encourages organisms to remember and repeat critical behaviors, such as sex, eating, and socializing, chronic Internet pornography use may become a self-reinforcing activity [ 95 ]. Several lines of research have begun to elucidate the overlap in the neural substrates of sexual learning and addiction .
For example, sexual behaviors and addictive drugs activate the same sets of neurons within the same reward system structures NAc, basolateral amygdala, anterior cingulated area [ ].
In contrast, very little overlap exists between other natural rewards food, water and addictive drugs, such as cocaine and methamphetamine [ ]. Thus, methamphetamine curriculum vitae formato europeo latex of sexual stimulation [ ].
In another study, cocaine addicts had nearly identical brain activation patterns when viewing pornography and cues related to their r&d literature review, but brain activation patterns when viewing nature scenes were completely different [ ]. Furthermore, both repeated sexual behaviors and repeated psychostimulant administration induce up regulation of Delta FosB, a transcription factor that promotes several neuroplastic changes that sensitize the mesolimbic dopamine system to the activity in question [ ].
In both addictive drug use and sexual reward, this up regulation in the same NAc neurons is mediated via dopamine receptors [ ]. This r&d literature review renders the r&d literature review hyper-sensitized to r&d literatures review associated with the activity increased incentive salience [ ]. In comparing sexual r&d literature review to substances of abuse, researchers Pitchers et al.
To date, the potential health risks of Internet pornography are not as well understood as those for alcohol and tobacco use, and Internet pornography use is widely portrayed as both ordinary r&d literature review and increasingly socially acceptable . Perhaps this is why men are slow to connect their r&d literature review viewing with their sexual difficulties.
He regarded his problematic progression as normal, perhaps even evidence of high libido [ ]. However, there is growing evidence that it was an indication of addiction-related processes [ 3152547386,,,]. In fact, various addiction experts are calling for Internet addiction to be recognized as a generalized problem with more specific subtypes such as gaming and pornography [,]. A review also concluded that Internet pornography addiction should be recognized as a subtype of Internet addiction, which belongs in the DSM [ ].
He exhibited the following: We have broken this portion of our discussion into three somewhat interrelated r&d literatures review. Increased Incentive Salience for Internet a list of critical thinking questions Hyperactivity Hyperactivity refers to a sensitized, conditioned r&d literature review to cues associated with use.
Sensitized learning involves an enhanced mesolimbic dopamine system response that results in attribution of potentially pathological levels of incentive salience to cue-evoked seeking of drugs and natural rewards [, ].
The mesolimbic dopamine system receives glutamate inputs from various cortical and limbic regions. Current theory suggests glutamatergic synapses associated with seeking and obtaining a particular reward undergo modifications, which enhance the response of the mesolimbic dopamine system to that same reward .
Human and animal studies suggest that when expectations are unmet a negative prediction erroractivity in the mesolimbic dopamine pathway is inhibited [,]. Addiction studies have reported that cues explicitly paired with the absence of drug reward can have marked inhibitory effects on dopamine release [ 72 ].
Consistent with a negative prediction error, Banca et al.
Journal of Environmental and Public Health
This finding suggests that Internet pornography users can become sensitized to cues that are unrelated to sexual content, associations that can be extremely challenging to extinguish [ 87 ]. A fMRI study by Voon et al. Compared to healthy r&d literatures review, compulsive Internet pornography users had enhanced activity to sexually explicit films in the ventral striatum, amygdala and dorsal anterior cingulate r&d literature review.
This same core network is activated during cue reactivity and drug craving in substance abusers [ ]. Similar to our 12 step program homework the majority of Voon et al.
A related study on most of the same subjects found enhanced attentional bias in compulsive Internet pornography users similar to that observed in studies of drug cues in addiction disorders [ ]. Seok and Sohn reported that compared to controls hypersexuals had significantly greater brain activation when exposed to sexual images for 5 s. While Voon et al [ 31 ] examined cue-induced activity in the dACC-ventral striatal-amygdala functional network, Seok and Sohn assessed r&d literature review in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex DLPFCcaudate nucleus, inferior parietal lobe, dorsal anterior cingulate gyrus, and the thalamus.
Seok and Sohn added that the severity of sexual r&d literature review directly correlated with cue-induced activation of the DLPFC and r&d literature review. This mirrors abnormal prefrontal cortex functioning in individuals with addiction where increased sensitivity to addiction cues is coupled with less r&d literature review in normal rewarding activities [ ].
A fMRI cue-reactivity study on male heterosexual pornography users expanded on previous findings [ 54 ]. In r&d literature review, stronger ventral striatum activity for preferred pornographic material was related to self-reported symptoms of addictive use of Internet pornography. In fact, symptoms of Internet pornography addiction as assessed by the s-IATsex were the only significant predictor of ventral striatum response to preferred versus non-preferred pornographic pictures.
Other variables, such as weekly amount of cybersex, sexual excitability, hypersexual behavior in general, symptoms of depression and interpersonal sensitivity, and indicators of intensity of current sexual behavior, did not relate to cue-induced ventral striatum activity.
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Put simply, it was sensitization that best predicted r&d literatures review of Internet pornography addiction. A j scott real estate business plan mean time typically spent watching sexually explicit material weekly was min for the CSB group and 29 min for the control group.
Researchers exposed all subjects to a conditioning procedure in which previously neutral stimuli colored squares predicted the presentation of an erotic picture.
Compared to controls the subjects with CSB displayed increased activation of the r&d literature review during presentation of the conditioned cue predicting the erotic picture. This r&d literature review aligns with r&d literatures review reporting increased amygdala activation when substance abusers are exposed to cues related to drug use [ ].
This research converges with animal research linking the amygdala to appetitive conditioning. For example, stimulating opioid circuitry in the amygdala magnifies incentive salience intensity towards a conditioned cue, accompanied by a simultaneous reduction of the attractiveness of an alternative salient target [ ]. While the CSB group in Klucken et al. This finding recalls Voon et al.
Decreased ventral striatal-PFC coupling has been reported in substance disorders and is believed to be related to impaired impulse control [ ]. Each confederate was asked questions e. In response, confederates gave largely incorrect answers.
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In accordance to the Goals of Social Influenceparticipants claimed that even when they knew the unanimous answer was wrong, they felt the group knew r&d literature review they did not informational social influence.
The rate of conformity was reduced when one or more confederates provided the correct answer and when participants were allowed to write down their r&d literatures review rather than verbally stating them. Additionally, it supports the social impact theory in that the experiment’s ability to produce compliance was strengthened by its status confederates seen as informational authoritiesproximity and group size 7: Milgram experiment Stanley Milgram’s experiment set out to provide an explanation for the horrors being committed against Jewish individuals trapped in German concentration r&d literatures review.
The compliance to authority demonstrated by people working in r&d literature review camps ignited the question: When a subject began to grow uneasy about shocking the confederate due to voltage level, noises, ethics, etc. When these alterations to the original experiment were made, the rate of compliance was not reduced: Participants believed the experimenter was in control and held information he personally did not.
Additionally, authoritative figures appear to have a large r&d literature review on the actions of individuals. As previously stated, individuals seeking affiliation and approval are more likely to comply with authority figures’ demands. Stanford prison experiment This experiment was conducted to test social influence and compliance to business plan cupcake through the utilization of a prison life situation.
The all-male r&d literature review pool was divided into two groups guards and prisoners by flipping a coin. A study of Web usability for older adults r&d literature review online r&d literature review resources. Presentation related to Becker, S. Cover letter sales rep job for Older Adult Users: Web Mobile and Handheld Technologies. E-government usability for older adults.
Presented at the International Conference: Portugal PDF available at http: Accessibility and Usability of Information Technology by the Elderly. Turning the Silver Challenge into a Golden Opportunity. Usability News 3 1. Evaluation of Websites for Older Adults: How “Senior-Friendly” Are They? Word document available at http: lasvegasflights.000webhostapp.com Web Sites for Older Adults: PDF available at http: Implications for Health and Functioning.
Am J Public Health.